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Somatic Embryogenesis

July 29, 2010  by: Sagar  Points: 15   Category: Others  Earning $0.20   Views: 420

When roots and shoots develop simultaneously and from a common origin, a differentiation process is seen that leads to hoot and root formation in a coordinated manner.

         

When roots and shoots develop simultaneously and from a common origin, a differentiation process is seen that leads to hoot and root formation in a coordinated manner. This process resembles the development of zygotic embryos, and is termed "somatic embryogenesis". The structures formed from callus or suspension cells are therefore called somatic embryos or, more precisely, somatic embryoids (embryo-like structures). Globular somatic embryoids, which can be maintained in culture over long periods of time, can differentiate into heart-shaped and later torpedo-shaped embryoids (Merkle et al., 1995). The regeneration of properly developed somatic embryoids to intact plants is quite simple (see Fig).


Morphogenesis from root, stem or leaf explants via adventitious organ formation and somatic embryogenesis from embryogenic callus via somatic embryos.

For carrot - which serves as a model system for studying somatic embryogenesis - it was calculated that about 50 000 somatic embryoids per liter medium are formed each day (Ducos et al., 1993). Hence, somatic embryogenesis is regarded as a system of choice for mass propagation, but for this purpose the process must be synchronized (Osuga and Komamine, 1994). It must also be considered that embryogenic cell cultures may lose this quality during prolonged cultivation. The advantages of
somatic embryoids include high multiplication rates and the potential for scale-up in bioreactors (Eeva et al., 2003).

Somatic embryoids can be encapsulated in alginate as single-embryo beads to produce so-called "artificial seeds" (Redenbaugh et al., 1988; Senaratna, 1992; Bajaj, 1995a; Cervelli and Senaratna, 1995). The quality of artificial seeds depends on the supply of growth regulators and nutrients. Artificial seeds can be desiccated in this way, thereby facilitating year-round production, storage, and distribution. The production of artificial seeds has been reported in many species (Gupta et al., 1993), with germination rates as high as 30% and 65% being found in alfalfa and celery, respectively. Somatic embryoids have also been used for the production of secondary plant metabolites. For example, the torpedo stages of somatic celery embryoids (Apium graveolens) will develop the celery flavor (Al-Abta et al., 1979), while embryoids of foxglove (Digitalis lanata) are capable of producing cardenolides (Greidziac et al., 1990), albeit in only small quantities.




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Author: willylive        
Posted Date: 09/19/2010    Points:1    

really very informative post about somatic embryogenesis.

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