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Why People Form Governments
February 20, 2011 by:
joeldgreat Points: 15
Category: Social Studies
Basic explanation why people form governments.
Whenever large groups of people live together, group life may become complicated. People disagree. People behave differently. This is why large groups tend to need many rules . But all of the people cannot spend their entire time making and enforcing rules. So they give leaders, or government , the power to make rules and to see that everyone follows them. The rules that a government makes and enforced are called laws . A nation's citizen must obey its laws.
What Governments Do
People want their governments to keep order, to provide services, and to provide protection from outsiders. Governments make and enforce laws to carry out these goals.
People who live together in a country have found that some kinds of behavior upset order. Governments make laws that guide behavior. Some laws spell out what people must do. Others spell out what people must not to do. In most countries, for example, there are laws that people must not steal from each other or hurt each other. If people follow these laws, they can live without being afraid for their property , all the things that they own. They can also live without fearing for their safety and their lives. They will have order.
Enforcing laws gives governments another very difficult responsibility. This is to see that people are treated fairly. If a person is thought to have broken a law, then the government must prove that this did, in fact, occur. For this reason, most governments have some way of examining the facts in the case. When these facts are used to prove something, they are called evidence .
Governments are different in the ways they provide for facts to be presented and examined. Sometimes the leader of the government does this. Sometimes it is up to a judge or a group of judges, whose job is to decide cases. Some governments have a system of judges, courts , and juries to hear and examine the evidence. Courts are places where cases are presented and decided. Juries are groups of people chosen to hear all the evidence in a case and to make a decision.
If the facts show that a person has broken a law, then the government is expected to decide upon a punishment . Some people believe in harsh punishment. For example, in some countries, a person who steals a loaf of bread has a hand chopped off. People in other countries believed in less extreme punishments. A person who steals a loaf of bread for the first time may be warned not to do it again or ordered to replace it or pay for it.
Governments also make and enforce laws that provide services. Public transportation is a very important service. Governments provide the leadership and money to study a country's transportation needs. Government decides where to build highways and railroad tracks. Then they hire the people to build them. Some governments supervise the repair of highway and railroad lines. Governments also pass laws to control how highways and railroads are run.
Governments also make laws to see that schools, libraries, and hospitals are built. They establish and maintain services to help people who do not have jobs or enough to eat. As you know, governments collect taxes from the people to help pay for all the services they provide.
Whenever a group of people occupies a given territory, one of its major concerns is how to protect its members and its land from outsiders. Arrangements must be made to guard against possible enemies.
In ancient China, the people were often in danger because enemies from the north invaded land. The Chinese built hundreds of walls to keep out their enemies, but this did not work. An early emperor of China united the people. He gathered together thousands of citizens to join all the separated walls into one Great Wall, which, as you knows, still stands today. The soldiers of the emperor guarded the wall. The people were protected from their enemies.
Today, governments must still protect their people from enemies. Governments keep armed forces to defend the land and to fight if necessary.
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