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Proteins - Structure,Calssification of amino acids and protein deficiency diseases

March 06, 2011  by: Justeen  Points: 12   Category: Health  Earning $0.55   Views: 1059

Proteins are nitrogenous compounds being made up of carbon,nitrogen,oxygen and hydrogen.Proteins also contain sulphur.In living systems proteins play an important role in the structural organisation.

         

Proteins:

Proteins are nitrogenous compounds being made up of carbon,nitrogen,oxygen and hydrogen.Proteins also contain sulphur.In living systems proteins play an important role in the structural organisation eg.,cell membrane,hairs,nails and muscles.Many of the proteins serve as enzymes.They are named as functional proteins.

Amino acids:

The building blocks of proteins are amino acids.There are approximately twenty different types of amino acids,such as glycine,alanine,serine,valine,leucin,proline etc.

Classification of amino acids:

Amino acids are classified into two types.They are
1.Essential amino acids
2.Non essential amino acids

Essential amino acids cannot be synthesised in our body.Hence they should be made available through food.The essential amino acids are arginine,valine,histidine,isoleucine,leucine,lycine,methionine,phenylalanine,threonine and tryptophan.

The non essential amino acids can be synthesised in our body.They need not be added in our diet.

Structure of Protein:

Protein is formed of several amino acids linked with each other by peptide bonds.This linear arrangement is termed as the primary organisation of a protein.However in most of the proteins the primary structure gets complicated into secondary,tertiary or quaternary stages.These levels are due to several other chemical bonds.The complicated structure of a particular protein is required for its function.The amino acid sequence and level of organisation is determined genetically.Hence the genome gets its importance due to its capability to prouce specific types of proteins for bringing out genetical characteristics.

Protein deficiency diseases:

The daily requirement of protein, according to the Nutrition Experts Committee of ICMR(Indian Council for Medical Research) and WHO(World Health Organisation) is 1 gram per kilogram of body weight.Reduction in the intake of protein leads to protein deficiency diseases like marasmus and kwashiorkar.

Marasmus:

In marasmus the child loses weight and it also causes severe diarrhoea and the body muscles get wasted.It will appear as the bones are covered by the skin.

Kwashiorkar:

In kwashiorkar there is a wastage of muscles.Face and feet will have oedema.The belly region will appear enlarged.

Protein rich foods:



Some of the protein rich food materials are given below:

.Milk
.Soy Milk
.Eggs
.Cheese
.Yogurt
.Peanut Butter
.Lean Meats, Fish, and Poultry
.Beans, Tofu, Lentils, and other Legumes
.Grains, including bread and pasta
.Nuts and Seeds

By taking these food materials in necessary amounts we can prevent protein deficiency diseases.




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