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Type 2 Diabetes

October 24, 2011  by: Dr. Simran Kaur  Points: 8   Category: Health  Earning $0.10   Views: 544

In type 2 diabetes, there is combination of resistance to the actions of insulin in liver and muscle together with impaired pancreatic beta cell function leading to relative insulin deficiency.

         

In susceptible individuals the pancreatic beta cells are unable to sustain the increased demand for insulin and a slowly progressive insulin deficiency develops.

In patients with type 2 diabetes excessive production of glucose in the liver and under utilization of glucose in skeletal muscle result from resistance to the action of insulin. It is often associated with other medical disorders, particularly central obesity, hypertension and dyslipidaemia.

Intra-abdominal central adipose tissue is metabolically active and releases large quantities of FFAs which may induce insulin resistance. Visceral adipose tissue drains into the portal vein, central obesity may have a particularly potent influence on insulin sensitivity in the liver and thereby adversely affects gluconeogenesis and hepatic lipid metabolism.

Sedentary people are therefore more insulin resistant than active people with the same degree of obesity. Some pathological changes are typical of type 2 diabetes, the most consistent of which is deposition of amyloid. While beta cell numbers are typically reduced by twenty percent in type 2 diabetes, alpha cell mass is unchanged and glucagon secretion is increased, which may contribute to the hyperglycaemia.

Genetic factors are important in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes. Type2 diabetes is associated with overeating, especially when combined with obesity and underactivity.




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