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Pyogenic Bacterial Meningitis

November 08, 2011  by: Dr. Simran Kaur  Points: 8   Category: Health  Earning $0.20   Views: 292

The meningococcus and other common causes of meningitis are normal commensals of the upper respiratory tract. New and potentially pathogenic strains are acquired by the air borne route.

         

Bacterial meningitis is usually secondary to a bacteraemic illness, although infection may result from direct spread from an adjacent focus of infection in the ear, skull fracture or sinus.

The meningococcus and other common causes of meningitis are normal commensals of the upper respiratory tract. New and potentially pathogenic strains are acquired by the air borne route.

Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis occur, particularly in cramped living conditions or where the climate is hot and dry. The organism invades through the nasophyranx, producing septicemia that is usually associated with pyogenic meningitis.

Pneumococcal meningitis may be associated with pneumonia and occurs especially in older patients and alcoholics, as well as those without functioning spleens.

Causative organisms-

1. Gram negative bacilli.

2. Haemophilus influenzae.

3. Neisseria meningitidis.

4. Streptococcus pneumoniae.


Symptoms-

1. Headache.

2. Drowsiness.

3. Fever.

4. Neck stiffness.

5. Neurological signs.

6. Purpuric rash.

7. Septicemia.


Investigations-

1. Lumbar puncture.

2. CT.

3. Blood cultures.

4. Polymerase chain reaction.


Management-

1. Antibiotics.

2. Adjunctive corticosteroid therapy.

3. Vaccines are available for the prevention of disease caused by meningococci of groups A and C.




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