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Mitral Stenosis

November 18, 2011  by: Dr. Simran Kaur  Points: 8   Category: Health  Earning $0.15   Views: 496

Patients are asymptomatic until the stenosis is 2 cm square or less.


Mitral stenosis is almost always rheumatic in origin. In elderly it can be caused by heavy calcification of the mitral valve apparatus. Mitral valve orifice is slowly diminished by progressive fibrosis, calcification of valve leaflets and fusion of cusps and subvalvular apparatus.


1. Pulmonary venous congestion.

2. Breathlessness.

3. Dilatation and hypertrophy of left atrium.

4. Mitral valve orifice.

5. Reduced to 1cm square or less in severe mitral stenosis.

6. Patients are asymptomatic until the stenosis is 2 cm square or less.

7. At first, symptoms occur on exercise but later as the disease progress, symptoms occur even at rest.

8. Fatigue.

9. Atrial fibrillation.

10. Pulmonary oedmea.

11. Hemodynamic deterioration.

12. Pulmonary hypertension.

13. Right ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation.

14. Tricuspid regurgitation.

15. Right heart failure.

16. Loud first heart sound, opening snap.

17. Mid diastolic murmur.

18. Haemoptysis.

19. Systemic embolism.


1. ECG.

2. Chest x-ray.

3. Echocardiography.

4. Doppler echocardiography.

5. Cardiac catheterisation.


1. Medicines.

2. Mitral balloon valvuloplasty.

3. Mitral valve replacement.


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