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Different Types of Respiratory Failure

July 10, 2012  by: Dr. Simran Kaur  Points: 12   Category: Health  Earning $0.40   Views: 550

Respiratory Failure can be of different types. It has sometime gradual onset or sometime sudden onset depending upon the type of respiratory failure. Sometime it is acute and sometime it is chronic.

         

Respiratory failure is caused by different disorders or diseases of lungs, wall of chest, diaphragm or sometimes it can be due to diseases of neuromuscular apparatus.

It can be of different types. It has sometime gradual onset or sometime sudden onset depending upon the type of respiratory failure. Sometime it is acute and sometime it is chronic.

Respiratory failure occurs when partial pressure of oxygen is less than 60 mmHg and partial pressure of carbon dioxide is more than 50 mmHg. Respiratory failure is of different types which are as follow-

1. Acute type I respiratory failure.

2. Chronic type I respiratory failure.

3. Acute type II respiratory failure.

4. Chronic type II respiratory failure.


1. Acute type I respiratory failure - occurs when there is low partial pressure of oxygen but with normal or low partial pressure of carbon dioxide. In rare circumstances, there can be low partial pressure of carbon dioxide but never high.

Causes-

It can be caused by different diseases which are as follow-

i) Pneumonia.

ii) Acute asthma.

iii) Pulmonary oedema.

iv) Pneumothorax.

v) Pulmonary embolism.

vi) Acute respiratory distress syndrome.


2. Chronic type I respiratory failure
- in it there is chronic hypoxemia but there is no hypercapnia. It is caused by following diseases-

i) Associated widespread pulmonary fibrosis.

ii) Chronic pulmonary oedema.

iii) Pulmonary thromboembolism.

iv) Neuromuscular disease.


3. Acute type II respiratory failure
- in it there is low partial pressure of oxygen whereas partial pressure of carbon dioxide is increased.

Causes-

i) Drugs which have harmful effects on respiratory system and depress the breathing.

ii) Brain stem damage.

iii) Neuromuscular diseases.

iv) Respiratory muscle’s disease.

v) Severe airflow obstruction.

vi) Tension pneumothorax or massive haemothorax .


4. Chronic type II respiratory failure - in it there is chronic hypoxemia present along with hypercapnia.

Causes-

Chronic type II respiratory failure is caused by following diseases-

i) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

ii) Obesity.

iii) Central hypoventilation and chest wall abnormalities.




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