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Bronchiectasis

July 31, 2012  by: Dr. Simran Kaur  Points: 12   Category: Health  Earning $0.40   Views: 522

Bronchiectasis is an abnormal dilatation of one or more bronchi of lungs permanently. It is caused due to the damage of the elastic and muscular components of bronchial wall.

         

Bronchiectasis is an abnormal dilatation of one or more bronchi of lungs permanently. It is caused due to the damage of the elastic and muscular components of bronchial wall.

Types-

Bronchiectasis is of three types which are as follow-

1. Saccular or cystic bronchiectasis.

2. Cylindrical or fusiform bronchiectasis.

3. Varicose bronchiectasis.


Causes-

1. Congenital causes- for example- bronchial cysts, primary hypogammaglobulinaemia, atopic bronchial asthma.

2. Acquired causes- for example- are as follow-

a) Pulmonary tuberculosis.

b) Necrotizing or suppurative pneumonia.

c) Tumors or foreign bodies.

d) Inhalation of toxic gases.


Symptoms-

1. Multiple bronchiectatic cavities are there. Left lung is more affected by bronchiectasis than the right lung.

2. Bronchiectasis affects lower lobes and middle lobes of lung more than the upper lobe.

3. Chronic cough with expectoration and haemoptysis. Cough is aggravated in morning with characteristically copious and purulent expectoration.

4. Dyspnoea and wheezing is also there. Recurrent pneumonia with weight loss is also there.

5. Anaemia, sinusitis, clubbing of digits, neutrophil leucocytosis.


Investigations-

1. Hb test, ESR test, TLC, DLC test.

2. Urine test.

3. Sputum test.

4. Sputum culture and sensitivity test.

5. Chest x-ray.

6. ECG.

7. Bronchoscopy.

8. Bronchography.

9. CT scan of chest.

10. Pulmonary function tests.

11. Arterial blood gas studies.

12. Sodium and chloride content level in sweat.


Treatment-

1. Treat underlying cause of disease.

2. Antibiotics.

3. Surgery.

4. Medicines.

5. Postural drainage.

6. Stop cigarette smoking.

7. Diet therapy.

8. Exercise.

9. Routine deep breathing.




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