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Bronchial Carcinoma

July 31, 2012  by: Dr. Simran Kaur  Points: 12   Category: Health  Earning $0.30   Views: 435

Bronchial carcinoma is the primary malignant tumor of the lung which originates from bronchial epithelium and mucous glands. It is more common in males between the age group of fifty and seventy five years.

         

Bronchial carcinoma is the primary malignant tumor of the lung which originates from bronchial epithelium and mucous glands. It is more common in males between the age group of fifty and seventy five years. It specifically affects chronic smokers more.

Causes-

1. Cigarette smoking.

2. Air pollution.

3. Chronic exposure to asbestos in asbestos industry.

4. Chronic exposure to arsenic, chromium and radon on regular basis.

5. Mining work.

6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

7. Tuberculosis.

8. Genetic pre-disposition or susceptibility.


Types-

Bronchial carcinoma is categorized into following types-

1. Small cell carcinoma.

2. Non small cell carcinoma - which is further sub-divided into following three sub-types-

a) Squamous carcinoma.

b) Adenocarcinoma.

c) Large cell carcinoma.


3. There is other one more variety which is known as neuroendocrine tumors.


Symptoms-

1. Cough with haemoptysis, wheeze, stridor, dyspnoea and pneumonitis in case of central or endobronchial tumor.

2. Chest pain, cough, dyspnoea and lung abscess in case of peripheral location of bronchial tumor.

3. Regional spread of tumor in thorax may cause following symptoms which are-

a) Malignant pleural effusion, superior vena caval syndrome, tracheal obstruction, dyspnoea, dysphagia, and hoarseness of voice.

b) Hypoxaemia and bovine cough.


4. In case of extra-thoracic metastasis, there may occur brain metastasis, bone metastasis, liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis in supraclavicular region.

5. Paraneoplastic syndrome in case of small cell carcinoma.


Investigations-

1. Chest X-ray.

2. Sputum test.

3. Cytological examination of bronchial secretions.

4. Percutaneous needle aspiration biopsy of peripheral tumor.

5. Fine needle aspiration of lymph node in case of metastasis.

6. CT scan of chest.

7. CT scan of abdomen.

8. Bronchoscopy.

9. Pleural aspiration and biopsy.

10. Barium swallow.

11. Ultrasound of liver and adrenal glands.

12. Bone scans.

13. Brain CT scan.

14. PET scan.

15. Pulmonary function tests.




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