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Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia

August 08, 2012  by: Dr. Simran Kaur  Points: 12   Category: Health  Earning $0.35   Views: 297

Chronic myeloid leukaemia is a myeloproliferative disease in which there is excessive proliferation of myeloid cells but with absolute normal maturation.

         

Chronic myeloid leukaemia is a myeloproliferative disease in which there is excessive proliferation of myeloid cells but with absolute normal maturation. It occurs due to reciprocal translocation between the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22, which is termed as Philadelphia chromosome.

Stages of chronic myeloid leukaemia-

Chronic myeloid leukaemia is divided into three stages-

1. Chronic stable stage.

2. Accelerated stage.

3. Blast crisis stage.


1. Chronic stable stage-

Chronic stable stage lasts for three to five years. It affects people of fifty five years of age and above it but not below it. In early days of chronic stable stage patient is asymptomatic and shows no symptoms. Massive splenomegaly, hepatomegaly and anemia are there. Fever, weight loss, sweating and intolerance to heat are there.

2. Accelerated stage-

Usually it lasts for one to five years but patient may go into blastic stage straight from chronic stage without going through the accelerated stage.

In accelerated stage, there is anemia, splenomegaly and increased total leucocyte count with an increase in circulating immature cells that is blast cells are in between 10 to 19 percent with an increase in basophil count.

3. Blast crisis stage-

In blast crisis stage, chronic myeloid leukaemia transforms into acute leukaemia. It is of further two subtypes-

i) Myeloid blast crisis.

ii) Lymphoid blast crisis.

Symptoms of blast crisis are splenomegaly, bone pain and sternal tenderness, anaemia and bleeding complaints with generalized lymphadenopathy. Blast cells are present more than 20 percent in peripheral blood smear and bone marrow.


Investigations-

1. Hb test.

2. TLC, DLC test.

3. Peripheral blood smear test.

4. Platelet count test.

5. Bone marrow test.

6. Philadelphia chromosome test.

7. Leucocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

8. Serum vitamin B12 test.

9. Serum lactate dehydrogenase test.

10. Serum uric acid test.

11. Serum potassium test.




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