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Mitral Stenosis

August 20, 2012  by: Dr. Simran Kaur  Points: 12   Category: Health  Earning $0.30   Views: 437

Mitral stenosis is a cardiovascular disease of heart in which there is narrowing of the orifice of the mitral valve of heart. It does not open properly due to various causes.

         

Mitral stenosis is a cardiovascular disease of heart in which there is narrowing of the orifice of the mitral valve of heart. It does not open properly due to various causes.

Causes-

1. Rheumatic fever.

2. Congenital mitral stenosis.

3. Gout.

4. Mitral annular calcification.

5. Infective endocarditis.

6. Rheumatoid arthritis.

In mitral stenosis, obstruction to the flow of blood from left atrium to left ventricle leads to increase in left atrial pressure resulting in pulmonary venous hypertension which further causes pulmonary arterial hypertension. This chronic pulmonary hypertension causes right ventricular hypertrophy and dilatation which leads to right ventricular failure.

Increased left atrial pressure causes left atrial dilatation which further leads to atrial fibrillation and thrombus formation ultimately resulting in systemic embolism which cause right ventricular failure.


Symptoms-

1. Mild to moderate mitral stenosis may remain asymptomatic. As the disease progress towards the advance stage, symptoms start appearing with constant deterioration of health.

2. Difficulty in breathing in early stages of disease only on exertion but in later stages it occurs even on rest.

3. Orthopnoea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea.

4. Pulmonary oedema.

5. Haemoptysis.

6. Recurrent attacks of bronchitis more in winter season.

7. Palpitations, chest pain, pulmonary hypertension.

8. Fatigue, loss of appetite.

9. Peripheral and facial cyanosis in severe cases.

10. Loud first and second heart sound.

11. Mitral opening snap is absent in severe mitral stenosis.

12. Narrow A2-OS interval, long diastolic murmur.


Investigations-

1. ECG test.

2. Echocardiogram.

3. Chest x-ray.




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Mitral Stenosis
Patients are asymptomatic until the stenosis is 2 cm square or less.

Congenital Pyloric Stenosis
It occurs in approximately 1 in 350 live births. Males are affected more by this disease. It is seen in first born male babies.

Chronic Mitral Regurgitation
Chronic mitral regurgitation is a cardiovascular disease of heart in which part of left ventricular blood regurgitates into left atrium during systole which leads to decrease in cardiac output.

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