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Pulmonary Embolism

August 30, 2012  by: Dr. Simran Kaur  Points: 7   Category: Health  Earning $0.20   Views: 376

Pulmonary embolism is a disease in which there occurs occlusion of the pulmonary artery or its branches by emboli.

         

Pulmonary embolism is a disease in which there occurs occlusion of the pulmonary artery or its branches by emboli.

Types-

1. Acute massive pulmonary embolism.

2. Recurrent silent pulmonary embolism.


1. Acute massive pulmonary embolism -
In which the embolus lodges in the main pulmonary artery.

2. Recurrent silent pulmonary embolism -
In which there occurs chronic pulmonary hypertension along with chronic right heart failure.


Causes-

1. Dislodgement of venous thrombi of the deep veins of lower limbs and pelvis.

2. Venous thrombosis.

3. Traveller’s thrombosis- which is very rare.


Symptoms-

1. Immediate effect of pulmonary embolism is complete or partial obstruction of the pulmonary arterial blood flow to the distal lung. This result in arterial hypoxaemia, alveolar collapse and embolic occlusion produces a zone of lung which is ventilated but not perfused.

2. Pulmonary embolism causes acute pulmonary hypertension, acute right ventricular failure and pulmonary infarction immediately after pulmonary embolism.

3. Sudden onset of dyspnoea.

4. Retrosternal chest pain.

5. Syncope.

6. Tachycardia.

7. Raised jugular venous pressure in massive pulmonary embolism.

8. Pleuritic chest pain.

9. Haemoptysis.

10. Pleural effusion.


Investigations-

1. TLC, DLC tests.

2. ESR test.

3. ECG.

4. Arterial blood gas studies.

5. D-dimer test.

6. Chest x-ray.

7. Spiral CT pulmonary angiography.

8. Ventilation perfusion scan.




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