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Optical instruments and its working principles

December 04, 2012  by: kanduri narasimha  Points: 12   Category: General Science  Earning $0.15   Views: 445

In this article, we can see how optical instruments are worked.

         

The name optical instrument was firstly applied to instruments like microscopes and telescopes. But now, it is applied to all instruments as they depend upon image forming property. These instruments are classified as

i)Visual instruments such as microscopes and telescopes.
ii)Photographing and projecting instruments such as cameras and optical lanterns.
iii)Analysing and measuring instruments such as spectrometers and spectroscopes.

Before studying about optical instruments such as microscopes and telescopes, we should have some knowledge on basic definitions
a)The nearest at which we can see the object clearly by the eye is called the near point of the eye.
b)The distance of the near point from the eye is called least distance of distinct vision. Generally, it is 25cm for the normal eye which is denoted by 'D'
c)The farthest point from an eye at which object can see distinctly is called far point. For our eye, it is theoretically at infinity.

Generally, when we focus our eyes at distance object, our eye muscles get relaxed.

Visual angle:


This is the angle subtended by an object at the eye. This angle is maximum when the object is placed at near point of the eye.

Sign convention:


The sign convention is followed when we use lens formula. Along the direction of incident rays, the distances measured as positive. In the opposite direction, the distances measured as negative. The height measured upwards are positive and downward as negative.

Linear magnification:


This the ratio of the size of the image to size of the object.

Simple microscope:


This is the instrument to increase the visual angle to see the object clearly. This microscope is also called reading lens. This microscope consists of a single short focus lens fitted in metal frame.




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