What Is Elementary Particle ?
Elementary Particles are the most fundamental constituents of every particle in the Universe. As far as we know, they are not made up of other particles. They are considered to be the basic components of matter and energy. They are the smallest known particle to human.
In 1808, John Dalton, a British school teacher proposed that atoms are the basic component of matter, and it cannot be divided further.
But in 1850s Michael Faraday and other scientists discovered electron. Later proton and neutron were found. This completely out-fashioned Dalton's atomic theorem.
If you are thinking that electrons, protons & neutrons are fundamental particles of atom, you are wrong. Scientists discovered some more elementary particles. This discovery led to the birth of new branch in science, Particle Physics.
What Is Particle Physics ?
Particle physics is the study of basic elements of matter & the forecasting among them. Physists learn about elementary particles through experiments with devices called particle accelerators. Particle accelerators provide the high energy required to probe the structure of matter.
Particle physics classify elementary particles into 3 main groups: quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons.
Quarks are the basic constituents of the subatomic particles called hadrons. Two of the most important kinds of hadrons are protons and neutrons, which make up the nuclei of atoms.
There are a number of different kinds of quarks, and each possesses a type of charge. For each kind of quark there also exists an antiparticle that is, a particle with certain properties (such as electrical charge) opposite those of the ordinary particle.
Quarks and antiquarks always occur combined in pairs or groups of 3. The combination of a quark and antiquark forms short-lived subatomic particles called mesons, which include kaons and pions. Combinations of three quarks form subatomic particles called baryons, which include protons and neutrons.
Proton have 2 up quarks & 1 down quark , so their total charge is :
+2/3 +2/3 -1/3 = +1
Also , proton have 2 down quarks & 1 up quark & their charge is :
-1/3 -1/3 +2/3 = 0
Leptons include electrons, several kinds of neutrinos, and their respective antiparticles.
A gauge boson is an elementary particle that carries energy between other elementary particles (including other gauge bosons), exerting a force in the process. Quarks (and antiquarks) create and absorb gauge bosons called gluons. Quarks (and antiquarks) are hound together, forming mesons and baryons, through a continuous exchange of gluons. The photon is a gauge boson that is exchanged between leptons.
Is This The End ?
After reading all this informations you may have been thinking that 'Is there anymore elementary particle'.
In reality we don't know, science is growing every second . We have to wait & watch what will happen in the distant future.